Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (particles that release naturally from a cell that cannot replicate) that are responsible for cell-to-cell communication.
They transport molecules that are essential regulators of intracellular information between close and distant cells.
Exosomes play a vital role in the communication and rejuvenation of all the cells in our body. Despite not being a cell, Exosome has proven to be quite important in maintaining a healthy cellular terrain.
Exosomes are typically made by growing stem cells in culture. Taking the media where they grow and then getting rid of the stem cells. Due to the small size of Exosomes, the media is then ultra-centrifuged to concentrate the exosomes.
Exosomes contain different molecular constituents of their cell origin; these include proteins and RNA. Meanwhile, the Exosomal proteins composition varies with the cell and tissue of the origin; most Exosomes contain an evolutionarily conserved common set of protein molecules.
How to isolate exosomes from the cultured stem?
Exosomes can be isolated from culture stem cells using the method of Ultracentrifugation. Often combined with sucrose density gradients, they float the relatively low-density Exosomes from other microvesicles. Cells and larger particles are removed by sequentially increasing the centrifugal forces. These procedures can take up to 30 hours and require an ultracentrifuge, extensive training, and specialized equipment.
This method provides highly enriched exosomes but requires specialized training and equipment.
Now, this is how Exosomes work:
Exosomes carry genetic information. Protein and messenger RNA can relay this information, letting cells know when and how to react. This Exosomes cell-to-cell communication is possible due to its unique shape and content.
Exosomes from young stem cells rejuvenate the older cells and assist in calming an overactive immune system or modulating it to respond in a coordinated and more effective fashion.
What is exosome therapy?
Exosome therapy is one of the hottest areas of regenerative medicine treatment. Researchers have given us valuable insight into the practical functionality of exosomes.
While stem cells are usually responsible for the rejuvenation of older cells, they may not be able to supply all the information needed. So supporting Exosome function could have a greater positive effect, by providing a new piece of information to enhance the healing process.
Exosome therapy is a minimally invasive procedure commonly used in orthopedic injuries, for anti-aging and some other degenerative diseases. Exosome treatment contains growth factors, messenger RNA, micro RNA, cytokines, and other biologically active molecules in conjunction with stem cell therapy to speed up healing benefits.
Exosome therapy can be injected into the affected area like in orthopedic injuries or given intravenously for anti-aging.
This Exosome injection is administered directly into the affected area, and the dosing for every patient varies, and there is no set protocol.
Exosome treatment is gaining popularity recently, due to its ability to transfer molecules from one cell to another via membrane vesicle, therefore influencing the immune system, such as dendrite cells and B cells.
What is exosome therapy used for?
Hair Loss. Exosome injection can be used to regrow hair loss due to its growth factor content. When injected, Exosome will trigger healing, cell stimulation, and natural regeneration of these hair follicles. Exosome hair loss therapy is cutting-edge in hair restoration. According to research, there is a positive relationship between Exosomes and Hair loss. Exosomes are ideal for people with thinning hair, excessive shedding, or hair loss proper. This is because Exosomes are regenerative cells that can heal, repair, stimulate, and restore cells and tissues.
Lyme Disease. Exosomes may help to regulate processes in the body, and may also be beneficial to patients with Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a very complex disease, which compromises the immune system. Many Lyme patients suffer from dysfunction of the mast cells, increasing their inflammatory response and metabolic function. Incorporating Exosomes treatment in their treatment regimen may help break the inflammatory response and provide the body with necessary cellular information to facilitate healing.
Arthritis. Arthritis as we all know is the joint inflammation resulting from an autoimmune disease. Although various types of treatment are available to alleviate symptoms, no known therapy has been confirmed effective in reversing the disease progression.
In the field of regenerative medicine today, with the discovery of extracellular microvesicles, especially exosomes, many researchers have been able to offer a more exciting alternative on this subject matter. Exosome arthritis therapy is believed to play a more substantial role in bone and cartilage remodeling.
In a nutshell, Exosomes provide enormous potential in the field of regenerative medicine. Please get in touch with one of our doctors for a more detailed free consultation.